Network Algorithms
Graduate Course - Summer Term 2013
Fabian Kuhn
Course description
Networks and distributed computing are essential in modern computing and information systems. Examples are on the one hand large-scale networks such as the Internet, and on the other hand multiprocessors such as the one in your new multi-core laptop. This course introduces the fundamental principles underlying the design of networks and distributed systems: communication, coordination, fault-tolerance, locality, parallelism, self-organization, symmetry breaking, synchronization, uncertainty. We explore essential algorithmic ideas and lower bound techniques.
Lectures and Exercises
- Tuesday 10-12 c.t.: 052-02-017
- Thursday 10-12 c.t.: 052-02-017
Lecture material
Slides / Recordings
Recordings of the lectures can be found on our webserver.Date | Lecture Notes | References | |
18.04.2013 | Introduction | ||
18.04.2013 | Chapter 1: Vertex Coloring | [peleg] Chapter 7 | |
25.04.2013 | Chapter 2: Leader Election | [aw] Chapter 3, [hkpru] Chapter 8 | |
30.04.2013 | Chapter 3: Tree Algorithms | [peleg] Chapter 3-5, [hkpru] Chapter 7 | |
07.05.2013 | Chapter 4: Distributed Sorting | [leighton] Ch. 1.6 & 3.5, [clrs] Ch. 28 | |
14.05.2013 | Chapter 5: Shared Objects | ||
28.05.2013 | Chapter 6: Maximal Independent Set | [peleg] Chapter 8 | |
11.06.2013 | Chapter 7: Dominating Set | --- | |
18.06.2013 | Chapter 8: Locality Lower Bounds | [peleg] Chapter 7.5 | |
25.06.2013 | Chapter 9: Synchronizers | [peleg] Ch. 6 & 25, [aw] Ch. 11 | |
02.07.2013 | Chapter 10: Social Networks | --- | |
09.07.2013 | Chapter 11: Dynamic Networks | --- | |
Exercises
Date | Problem Set | Solution | |
25.04.2013 | Exercise 1: Vertex Coloring | Sample Solution 1 | |
02.05.2013 | Exercise 2: Leader Election and Tree Algorithms | Sample Solution 2 | |
09.05.2013 | Exercise 3: Sorting Networks | Sample Solution 3 | |
16.05.2013 | Exercise 4: Shared Objects | Sample Solution 4 | |
30.05.2011 | Exercise 5: Maximal Independent Set | Sample Solution 5 | |
13.06.2013 | Exercise 6: Dominating Set | Sample Solution 6 | |
20.06.2013 | Exercise 7: Coloring Rings | Sample Solution 7 | |
27.06.2013 | Exercise 8: Distributed Network Partitioning | Sample Solution 8 | |
11.07.2013 | Exercise 9: Dynamic Networks | ||
Books
Additional References
Chapter 1: Coloring
- R. Cole and U. Vishkin. Deterministic coin tossing with applications to optimal parallel list ranking. In Inform. Comput. 70(1), pages 32-56, 1986.
- A.V. Goldberg and S. Plotkin. Parallel (Δ+1)-coloring of constant-degree graphs. In Inform. Process. Lett. 25, pages 241-245, 1987.
- K. Kothapalli, M. Onus, C. Scheideler and C. Schindelhauer. Distributed coloring in O(sqrt{log n}) bit rounds. In Proc. IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS), 2006.
- N. Linial. Locality in Distributed Graph Algorithms. In SIAM Journal on Computing 21(1), pages 193-201, 1992.
- J. Schneider and R. Wattenhofer. A New Technique for Distributed Symmetry Breaking. In Proc. ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2010.
Chapter 2: Leader Election
- D. Angluin. Local and global properties in networks of processors. In Proc. 12th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC), pages 82-93, 1980.
- J.E. Burns. A formal model for message passing systems. Technical Report 91, Indiana University, September 1980.
- D.S. Hirschberg, and J.B. Sinclair. Decentralized extrema-finding in circular configurations of processors. In Communications of the ACM 23(11), pages 627-628, November 1980.
- G. LeLann. Distributed systems, towards a formal approach. In IFIP Congress Proceedings, pages 155-160, 1977.
Chapter 3: Tree Algorithms
- D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager. Data Networks. 2nd Edition. Prentice-Hall International, London, 1992.
- Y.K. Dalal and R.M. Metcalfe. Reverse path forwarding of broadcast packets. Communications of the ACM, volume 12, pages 1040-1048, 1978.
- S. Even. Graph Algorithms. Computer Science Press, Rockville, MD, 1979.
- P. Fraigniaud and E. Lazard. Methods and problems of communication in ususal networks. Discrete Appl. Mathematics, volume 53, pages 79-133, 1994.
- R. G. Gallager, P. A. Humblet, and P. M. Spira. Distributed Algorithm for Minimum-Weight Spanning Trees. In ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 5(1):66-77, January 1983.
Chapter 4: Distributed Sorting
- M. Ajtai, J. Komlos, and E. Szemeredi. An 0 (n log n) sorting network. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, pages 1-9, April 1983.
- J. Aspnes, M.P. Herlihy, and N. Shavit. Counting Networks. In Journal of the ACM, 41(5): pages 1020-1048, September 1994.
- K. Batcher. Sorting networks and their applications. In Proceedings of the AFIPS Spring Joint Computing Conference, volume 32, pages 307-314, 1968.
- C. Busch and M. Herlihy. A Survey on Counting Networks. In Proceedings of Workshop on Distributed Data and Structures, Orlando, Florida, March 30, 1998.
- N. Haberman. Parallel neighbor-sort (or the glory of the induction principle). Technical Report AD-759 248, National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield VA 22151, 1972.
- C. Kaklamanis, D. Krizanc, and T. Tsantilas. Tight bounds for oblivious routing in the hypercube. In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, pages 31-36, July 1990.
- M. Klugerman, C. Greg Plaxton: Small-Depth Counting Networks. In STOC 1992. pages 417-428.
- K. Sado and Y. Igarashi. Some parallel sorts on a mesh-connected processor array and their time efficiency. In Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, volume 3, pages 398-410, September 1986.
Chapter 5: Shared Objects
- M. Demmer and M. Herlihy. The arrow directory protocol. In Proceedings of 12th International Symposium on Distributed Computing, Sept. 1998.
- D. Ginat, D. D. Sleator, R. Endre Tarjan. A Tight Amortized Bound for Path Reversal. In Information Processing Letters volume 31(1), pages 3-5, 1989.
- M. Herlihy, S. Tirthapura, and R. Wattenhofer. Competitive Concurrent Distributed Queuing. In Proceedings of the 20th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), Newport, Rhode Island, August 2001.
- F. Kuhn and R. Wattenhofer. Dynamic Analysis of the Arrow Distributed Protocol. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), Barcelona, Spain, June 2004.
- K. Li, and P. Hudak, Memory coherence in shared virtual memory systems. In ACM Transactions on Computer Systems volume 7(4), pages 321-3 59, Nov. 1989.
- B. M. Maggs, F. Meyer auf der Heide, B. VÃ¶cking, M. Westermann. Exploiting Locality for Data Management in Systems of Limited Bandwidth. In IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), 1997.
Chapter 6: Maximal Independent Set
- M. Luby. A Simple Parallel Algorithm for the Maximal Independent Set Problem. In SIAM Journal on Computing, November 1986.
- A. Israeli, A. Itai. A Fast and Simple Randomized Parallel Algorithm for Maximal Matching. In Information Processing Letters volume 22(2), pages 77-80, 1986.
- N. Alon, L. Babai, and A. Itai. A fast and simple randomized parallel algorithm for the maximal independent set problem. Journal of Algorithms, 7(4):567-583, 1986.
- Y. Métivier, J.M. Robson, N. Saheb-Djahromi, and A. Zemmari. An Optimal Bit Complexity Randomised Distributed MIS Algorithm. 16th International Colloquium on Structural Information and Communication Complexity (SIROCCO) 2009.
Chapter 7: Dominating Set
- L. Jia, R. Rajaraman, T. Suel. An Efficient Distributed Algorithm for Computing Small Dominating Sets. Distributed Computing 15(4), December 2002.
- F. Kuhn and R. Wattenhofer. Constant-Time Distributed Dominating Set Approximation. Distributed Computing 17(4), May 2005.
- F. Kuhn, T. Moscibroda, and R. Wattenhofer. The Price of Being Near-Sighted. 17th ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA) 2006.
Chapter 8: Locality Lower Bounds
- N. Linial. Locality in Distributed Graph Algorithms. SIAM Journal on Computing 21(1), 1992.
- A. Czygrinow, M. Hańćkowiak, and W. Wawrzyniak. Fast Distributed Approximations in Planar Graphs. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC), September 2008.
- F. Kuhn, T. Moscibroda, R. Wattenhofer. What Cannot Be Computed Locally! In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), July 2004.
Chapter 10: Social Networks
- Jon Kleinberg. The small-world phenomenon: an algorithm perspective. In Proceedings of 32nd ACM symposium on Theory of computing (STOC), Portland, Oregon, United States, 2000.
- David Easley and Jon Kleinberg. Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World, Cambridge University Press, 2010.